Assets measured at amortised cost
At each balance date for credit, loan or finance lease, an assessment is made of whether there is objective evidence that a given financial asset or a group of financial assets is impaired. If such evidence exists, the Group determines the amounts of impairment losses. An impairment loss is incurred when there is objective evidence of impairment due to one or more events that occurred after the initial recognition of the asset (‘a loss event’), when the loss has a reliably measurable impact on the expected future cash flows from the financial asset or group of financial assets.
Objective evidence that a financial asset or group of assets is impaired includes observable data that comes to the attention of the Group about the following events:
- significant financial difficulties of the issuer or the debtor,
- breach of a contract by the issuer or the debtor, such as a default or a delinquency in contracted payments of interest or principal,
- granting of a concession by the lender to the issuer or the borrower, for economic or legal reasons relating to the borrower's financial difficulty, that the lender would not otherwise consider,
- high probability of bankruptcy or other financial reorganisation of the issuer or the debtor,
- disappearance of an active market for a given financial asset on the active market due to financial difficulties of the issuer or the debtor,
- evidence that there is a measurable reduction in the estimated future cash flows from a group of financial assets, including collectability of these cash flows.
The Group firstly assesses impairment on an individual basis for significant receivables. If, for a given financial asset assessed individually, there are no objective indications of impairment, the asset is included in a group of financial assets with similar characteristics, which are subsequently assessed for impairment on a collective basis.
Loan and lease receivables are classified by the Group on the basis of the amount of exposure into the individual and group portfolios.
In the individual portfolio, each individual loan or lease exposure is analysed for the existence of impairment evidence. If the asset is found to be impaired, an allowance is recognised against the amount of the receivable. If there is no objective evidence of impairment for a given exposure, this exposure is included in the portfolio of loans or lease receivables that are assessed on a collective basis.
Within the group portfolio, groups with similar credit risk characteristics are identified, which are then assessed for impairment on a collective basis.
If there is objective evidence for impairment of financial assets classified as loans and receivables, finance lease receivables or investments held to maturity, the amount of the impairment allowance is the difference between the carrying amount of the asset and the present value of the estimated future cash flows (excluding future credit losses that have not been incurred), discounted using the original effective interest rate from the date on which the financial asset was found to be impaired.
The calculation of the present value of estimated cash flows relating to financial assets for which there is held collateral takes into account cash flows arising from the realisation of the collateral, less costs to possess and sell.
Future cash flows from a group of financial assets assessed for impairment on a collective basis are estimated on the basis of cash flows generated from contracts and historical data generated from assets with similar risk characteristics.
Historical recovery parameters are adjusted on the basis of data from current observations, so as to take into account the impact of current conditions and exclude currently non-relevant factors.
In subsequent periods, if the amount of impairment loss is reduced because of an event subsequent to the impairment being recognised (e.g. improvement in debtor's credit rating), the impairment loss that was previously recognised is reversed by making an appropriate adjustment to impairment allowances. The amount of the reversal is recorded in the income statement.
The Group plans that the adopted methodology used for estimating impairment allowances will be developed in line with the further accumulations of historic impairment data from the existing information systems and applications. As a consequence, new data obtained by the Group could influence the level of impairment allowances in the future. The methodology and assumptions used in the estimates are reviewed on a regular basis to minimise the differences between the estimated and actual loss amounts.
Assets available for sale
At each balance date, the Group makes an assessment, whether there is objective evidence that a given financial asset classified to financial assets available for sale is impaired. If such evidence exists, the Group determines the amounts of impairment losses.
Objective evidence that a financial asset or group of assets available for sale is impaired includes the following events:
- significant financial difficulties of the issuer,
- breach of a contract by the issuer, such as lack of contracted payments of interest or principal or late payments,
- granting of a concession by the lender to the issuer, for economic or legal reasons relating to the borrower's financial difficulty, that the lender would not otherwise consider,
- deterioration of the borrower’s financial condition in the period of maintaining the exposure,
- high probability of bankruptcy or other financial reorganisation of the issuer,
- increase in risk of a certain industry in the period of maintaining a significant exposure,
in which the borrower operates, reflected in the industry being qualified as ‘elevated risk industry’.
The Group firstly assesses impairment on an individual basis for significant receivables.
If there is objective evidence of impairment on financial assets classified as debt securities available for sale not issued by the State Treasury, an impairment allowance is calculated as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present fair value estimated as value of future cash flows discounted by the market interest rates set on the based on yield curves for Treasury bonds moved by risk margins.
An impairment loss of a financial asset classified as available for sale is recognised in the income statement, which results in the necessity to transfer the effects of accumulated losses from other comprehensive income to the income statement.
In subsequent periods, if the fair value of debt securities increases, and the increase may be objectively related to an event subsequent to the impairment being recognised, the impairment loss is reversed and the amount of the reversal is recorded in the income statement.
Impairment losses recognised against equity instruments are not reversed through profit and loss.